﻿ Circuit Simulation > The Spice Reference Manual > Circuit Description > Circuit Elements and Models > Voltage and Current Sources > Independent Sources > Independent Sources

# Independent Sources

General form:

VXXXXXXX N+ N- <DC<> DC/TRAN VALUE> <AC <ACMAG <ACPHASE>>>

+ <DISTOF1 <F1MAG <F1PHASE>>> <DISTOF2 <F2MAG <F2PHASE>>>

IYYYYYYY N+ N- <<DC> DC/TRAN VALUE> <AC <ACMAG <ACPHASE>>>

+ <DISTOF1 <F1MAG <F1PHASE>>> <DISTOF2 <F2MAG <F2PHASE>>>

Examples:

VCC 10 0 DC 6 VIN 13 2 0.001 AC 1 SIN(0 1 1MEG) ISRC 23 21 AC 0.333 45.0 SFFM(0 1 10K 5 1K) VMEAS 12 9 VCARRIER 1 0 DISTOF1 0.1 -90.0 VMODULATOR 2 0 DISTOF2 0.01 IIN1 1 5 AC 1 DISTOF1 DISTOF2 0.001

N+ and N- are the positive and negative nodes, respectively. Note that voltage sources need not be grounded. Positive current is assumed to flow from the positive node, through the source, to the negative node. A current source of positive value forces current to flow out of the N+ node, through the source, and into the N- node. Voltage sources, in addition to being used for circuit excitation, are the 'ammeters' for SPICE, that is, zero valued voltage sources may be inserted into the circuit for the purpose of measuring current. They of course have no effect on circuit operation since they represent short-circuits.

DC/TRAN is the dc and transient analysis value of the source. If the source value is zero both for dc and transient analyses, this value may be omitted. If the source value is time-invariant (e.g., a power supply), then the value may optionally be preceded by the letters DC.

ACMAG is the ac magnitude and ACPHASE is the ac phase. The source is set to this value in the ac analysis. If ACMAG is omitted following the keyword AC, a value of unity is assumed. If ACPHASE is omitted, a value of zero is assumed. If the source is not an ac small-signal input, the keyword AC and the ac values are omitted.

DISTOF1 and DISTOF2 are the keywords that specify that the independent source has distortion inputs at the frequencies F1 and F2 respectively (see the description of the .DISTO control line). The keywords may be followed by an optional magnitude and phase. The default values of the magnitude and phase are 1.0 and 0.0 respectively.

Any independent source can be assigned a time-dependent value for transient analysis. If a source is assigned a time-dependent value, the time-zero value is used for dc analysis. There are five independent source functions: pulse, exponential, sinusoidal, piece-wise linear, and single-frequency FM. If parameters other than source values are omitted or set to zero, the default values shown are assumed. (TSTEP is the printing increment and TSTOP is the final time (see the .TRAN control line for explanation)).